Here we talk about the most common type of solids. Use them on daily basis. If you stop for a second and look around you, you will notice that most of the objects that you have are either made up of metals or contains a metal. For example, your watch has metal components, and your... Continue Reading →


During the wintertime in case you are blessed enough to be in a place where it's snowing, if you are like most school kids, you get pretty excited about snow days. On your day off, you might go outside and play in the snow as you watch the snowflakes fall. When a snowflake lands on... Continue Reading →


This category of solids have very much to do with our food. We literally eat Ionic Solids. But let's dive deeper a little bit. WHAT IS A IONIC SOLID? By definition of the word “ionic”, indicated that we are dealing with something that is obviously related to, or involves ions. A ION is a particle,... Continue Reading →


Solid is the 1st state of matter and also the most studied and used. Anyone entering into materials science engineering the 1st stage of study starts with learning and understanding solids. In my previous article I was briefly introducing the concept of SOLID, what is it, how does it occur and what are it main... Continue Reading →


The Periodic Table of Elements currently contains 118 elements we have knowledge about, yet the element 118 is definitelly not the last one. The same I can say about the states of matter. Before anything else let's recall the definition of matter. MATTER is referred to as anything that has mass and occupies space. So... Continue Reading →

MERCURY: The atmosphere on the smallest planet in our solar system

Mercury is a planet without much of atmosphere and its surface full of craters tells us about the great cosmic bombardment a.k.a. the Late Heavy Bombardment which is a hypothesized event thought to have occured approximatelly 3.9 billion years ago. It's not easy to find information about the early life of this globe, because Mercury... Continue Reading →

MERCURY: The 1st Planet from the Sun and smallest in our solar system.

All the technology we have so far is based on materials available on our planet. At least for now. However at one point in time as technology continues to advance we might be able one day to exploit natural resources available in our Solar Sistem. Except Earth there are 4 bodies outhere we can consider... Continue Reading →

MECHANICAL DESIGN ENGINEERING – Geometrical Dimensioning and Tolerancing_What is the TOTAL RUNOUT tolerance?

Description Definition: Total Runout is how much one entire feature or surface varies with respect to a datum when the part is rotated 360° around the datum axis. Total runout controls both the amount of variation in the surface as the part is rotated, but the amount of variation in the axial dimension. Both radial... Continue Reading →

MECHANICAL DESIGN ENGINEERING – Geometrical Dimensioning and Tolerancing_What is the CIRCULAR RUNOUT tolerance?

Runout is one of the oldest and simplest concepts used in GD & T. Maybe as a child you stood your bicycle upside down on the ground and spun a wheel. If you fixed your stare on the shiny rim where it passed a certain part of the frame, you could see the rim wobble... Continue Reading →

The Clouds – Why clouds are mostly white?

Recalling my trip to New York by plane back in 2019, as I gazed out the window into the whiteness, I found it hard to reconcile a cloud as being fundamentally liquid. The individual droplets that make up a cloud are of course too small to see, but they are also transparent. So why are... Continue Reading →

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